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SPRING 2011 p. 175
"Urgent questions about the role and responsibility of architects have been circulating since the Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 2004. At that time the relief effort exposed troubling gaps between humanitarian aid that targets the short term and our ability to rebuild homes, infrastructure, and communities well. While aid agencies are willing, they do not have an architectfs knowledge or insights; consequently, the buildings that replace destroyed communities are frequently unsafe.
Unfortunately, this is as true today as it was seven years ago. However corrupt or appalling the politics (and policies) behind the catastrophes in Sichuan and Haiti, professional architects—whether in the developing or developed world— are notably absent from efforts to protect people from disaster. Yet architects have recently been very active in other areas of public interest—for example, they have instigated a range of creative strategies to improve social, environmental, and economic equity, some of which have become books about how to alter the way we think about the design process. But in extreme circumstances, in crises, architects offer no coherent response. They play no sustained role in shaping policy and have had little active presence or voice in leading best practices in disaster prevention, mitigation, and recovery. There is still no career path that prepares students to work as urgentistes—design professionals who intervene at a crucial moment in the recovery process to produce enduring solutions.
Which is precisely why this book is about the architects who are helping save lives. Innovative, fascinating work is being done by small teams of outstanding professionals in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the United States, who are proving to be critical, relevant partners helping communities recover from disaster and rebuild. The highly skilled architects and leaders in other fields who have so generously contributed to this book are providing resilient solutions that ensure the safety of new homes and bring coherence to land-use planning. These teams assess damage but also research innovative building technologies. They are at the forefront of the use of low-cost, energy-saving, environmentally sound materials and new methods of prefabrication. They have discovered ways to bring affordable high-tech solutions to vulnerable communities. These teams are experts in how best to bridge the gap that separates shortterm emergency needs from long-term sustainable recovery. And they are experienced in helping reduce future risk, promote awareness, and protect relief investment. Admittedly, this level of expertise is rare, concentrated in the hands of far too few professionals working worldwide.
Beyond Shelter is a call to action. When I started writing this book and searched for practicing architects skilled at working with risk almost everyone asked me the same question: why architects? As if to say, what is it to us? At the conference Risques Majeurs 2008 (Major Risks 2008) sponsored by the European Union, two or three architects were present. The officials and ministers I spoke with reminded me that on average architects contribute to only 3 percent of the worldfs built environment. Their indifference—or worse, irrelevance—to the worldfs most vulnerable communities made them seem hardly worth talking about. Three percent is a terrible number.
But if not architects and planners, who is in charge of rebuilding towns and villages leveled by earthquakes and cyclones? The answer is disquieting: no one is in charge. Typically, a patchwork of nongovernmental charities, government agencies, and residents themselves cobble together solutions. In large-scale disasters, even when aid pours in, the expertise and planning infrastructure needed to make best use of the money are lacking."
- Excerpted from the Preface by Marie J. Aquilino
"A safe, durable, and dignified home is an aspiration of all, yet often hindered by a lack of access to the required know-how. This valuable work champions the need to involve the built-environment professionals and practitioners who have such expertise on the frontlines of post-disaster and sustainable shelter and settlement." Graham Saunders, head, Shelter and Settlements Department, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Please visit the BBC site to hear Aquilino speak on the importance of giving victims of natural disasters long-life homes and infrastructure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity by Marie J. Aquilino
The Architecture of Risk by Victoria L. Harris
ARCHITECTURE AFTER DISASTER
Learning from Aceh by Andrea Fitrianto
Beyond Shelter in the Solomon Islands by Andrea Nield
News from the Teardrop Island by Sandra DUrzo
From Transitional to Permanent Shelter: Invaluable Partnerships in Peru by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
WHAT SHOULD GOVERNMENTS DO?
When People Are Involved by Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam
Citizen Architects in India by Rupal and Rajendra Desai
What about Our Cities? Rebuilding Muzaffarabad by Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin
URBAN RISK AND RECOVERY
Below the Sill Plate: New Orleans East Struggles to Recover by Deborah Gans with James Dart
Slumlifting: An Informal Toolbox for a New Architecture by Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner
Sustainable Communities: Avoiding Disaster in the Informal City by Arlene Lusterio
Camouflaging Disaster: 60 Linear Miles of Local Transborder Urban Conflict by Teddy Cruz
Cultural Heritage and Disaster Mitigation: A New Alliance by Rohit Jigyasu
Green Recovery by Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith
The Home as the World: Tamil Nadu by Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein
Design as Mitigation in the Himalayas by Francesca Galeazzi
On Beauty, Architecture, and Crisis: The Salam Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan by Raul Pantaleo
TEACHING AS STRATEGIC ACTION
Cultivating Resilience: The BaSiC Initiative by Sergio Palleroni
Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas by Dan Rockhill and Jenny Kivett
Sustainable Knowledge and Internet Technology by Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers
IS PREVENTION POSIBLE?
More to Lose: The Paradox of Vulnerability by John Norton and Guillaume Chantry
Building Peace across African Frontiers by Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams
Haiti 2010: Reports from the Field by Marie J. Aquilino
Open Letter to Architects, Engineers, and Urbanists by Patrick Coulombel
| || |
Architecture and Human Dignity
Edited by Marie J. Aquilino. Text by Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, Zahid Amin, Marie J. Aquilino, Jennifer E. Duyne Barestein, Alfredo Brillembourg, Guillaume Chantry, Patrick Coulombel, Robin Cross, Teddy Cruz, James Dart, Rajedra and Rupal Desai, Sandra D'Urzo, Guy Fimmers, Andrea Fitrianto, Francesca Galeazzi, Deborah Gans, Mehran Gharaati, Victoria L. Harris, Rohit Jigyasu, Jenny Kivett, Hubert Klumpner, Arlene Lusterio, Andrea Nield, John Norton, Kimon Onuma, Sergio Palleroni, Raul Pantaleo, Dan Rockhill, Brittany Smith, Maggie Stephenson, Anita Van Breda, Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam, Naomi Handa Williams.
Across Africa, Asia, Latin America and the United States, groundbreaking work is being done by small teams of outstanding professionals who are helping communities to recover from disaster and rebuild, bridging the gap that separates short-term emergency needs from long-term sustainable recovery. Questions about the role and responsibility of architects in disaster recovery have been circulating since the Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 2004. In the last decade, 200 million people have been affected by natural disasters and hazards. Ninety-eight percent of these victims are in the developing world, where billions of dollars in aid are absorbed annually by climatic and geologic crises. Those in the developed world are not immune, as extreme temperatures, intense heat waves, increased flooding and droughts expose vast numbers of people to the experience of the eco-refugee. Beyond Shelter is a call to action. It features 20 generously illustrated reports from the field, written by the founders of some of the world's most provocative architecture and engineering firms and studios (Arup, Estudio Teddy Cruz, Urban Think Tank); accomplished nonprofits and research centers (Architectes de l'Urgence, Article 25 Development and Disaster Relief, the Institute for Sustainable Solutions at Portland State University, Development Workshop France); and leaders of such prominent organizations as the Red Cross, UN-Habitat and the World Wildlife Fund. All of these people are on the frontlines of disaster prevention and recovery, in rural and urban areas alike. Beyond Shelter presents projects in such diverse locales as Manila, New Orleans, Gujarat, São Paulo, rural Vietnam, Kashmir, the Gola Forest in Sierra Leone, Greensburg, Kansas and the village of Soba, outside Khartoum. Together they illustrate the reality that evolving risk requires new ways of thinking, and that architects have a leading role to play.
Featured photograph, by Agostino Pacciani, is reproduced from Beyond Shelter:
Architecture and Human Dignity.
FROM THE ARTBOOK BLOG
CORY REYNOLDS | DATE 1/14/2014
This week on the Metropolis Books site, Corine Wegener, Cultural Heritage Preservation Officer for the Smithsonian Institution, reports on the Haiti Cultural Recovery Project, ensuring that "those in need will have a heritage to return to, for themselves and for their children."
Photos below are by Corine Wegener. To read the complete post, continue to the Metropolis Books site.
continue to blog
FROM THE ARTBOOK BLOG
CORY REYNOLDS | DATE 10/4/2013
At the invitation of Beyond Shelter author Marie Aquilino, V3 Hydrogeologist Stuart Dykstra weighs in from La Gonâve, Haiti, where residents survive by saving rain water and otherwise walking ten kilometers or more every few days to collect brackish water from springs near the coast. continue to blog
FROM THE ARTBOOK BLOG
MARIE AQUILINO | DATE 9/16/2013
This week, Beyond Shelter author Marie Aquilino initiates a regular column for Metropolis Books, reporting on her work with the Montesinos Foundation in Titanyen, Haiti. Created by Father Charles Moise, the Montesinos Foundation is a residential school for abandoned children, Haitis most marginalized group. The educational program integrates a deep respect for the environment and a commitment to revive the local ecology.
continue to blog
FROM THE ARTBOOK BLOG
CORY REYNOLDS | DATE 9/22/2011
As the rate of natural disasters increases, so does the need to help rebuild the communities and lives of those affected. Across the world, there is a huge effort to help these communities; trying to bridge the gap that separates short-term solutions from long-term sustainable recovery.
continue to blog
FROM THE ARTBOOK BLOG
MARIE AQUILINO | DATE 4/4/2014
This week on the Metropolis Books website (link at bottom of blog), 'Beyond Shelter' author Marie Aquilino reports on the successes and failures of her group's efforts in Titanyen, Haiti.
"Two days after we arrived the American team pulled in and unloaded dozens of duffle bags full of supplies and power tools from two white Avis 4x4s. Our team had become accustomed to the quiet.
We were working with relatively inexpensive ephemeral materials and improbable shapes in a studious process that required some pounding and sawing but was mainly a series of gestures and short instructions measured by lots of focused alone time sewing, tying, knotting, steadying. Cord was our only high-tech tool.
continue to blog
SHEIKH AHSAN AHMED studied architecture at Dawood College and the NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. He worked for several years in a private architecture practice in Islamabad, then joined the AJK Government Central Design Office in Muzaffarabad to design public-sector buildings. In 2006 Ahmed joined UN-Habitat, supporting the Rural Housing Reconstruction Programme; he continues to work in disaster risk management and urban-development programs. Ahmed lost his home in the old city of Muzaffarabad in the 2005 earthquake and suffered injuries and the death of close relatives. He has not managed to rebuild a permanent home yet but has worked to support those in most need over the last five years.
ZAHID AMIN is chairman of the Muzaffarabad Development Authority in Pakistan. He studied Arabic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and law in Karachi, Pakistan. Long active in public service, at the time of the earthquake in 2005 he was chairman of the Municipal Corporation of Muzaffarabad and led emergency-relief operations for the city. He was chairman of the Muzaffarabad Development Authority from 2006 to 2009 and in 2010. In 2009 he ran a citizensf organization. Amin was injured and lost close relatives and his home in Muzaffarabad in the 2005 earthquake. He has not yet been able to rebuild but has been dedicated to supporting those in greatest need since the disaster.
MARIE J. AQUILINO is a professor of architectural history at the École Speciale D'Architecture (ESA) in Paris and a specialist in contemporary urban redevelopment. She has a PhD from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Marie conducts seminars on the architectfs role in disaster prevention, mitigation, and sustainable recovery as a means of teaching students about architecture and social justice. She holds a Competences and Talents Visa from the French government to develop a program at ESA to educate and train architecture students to work in the context of extreme need and crisis in the developing world. She is currently working with the International Federation of the Red Cross to set up a working group on the reconstruction of Haiti and is associate program director of BaSiC Initiative. She is a founding partner in OpenJapan, a worldwide design collaborative that devises integrated systems of risk mitigation and a member of Future City Lab, a collaboration of different international universities to develop a sustainable urban utopia of 2050.
JENNIFER E. DUYNE BARENSTEIN has a PhD in social anthropology from the University of Zurich. Her research spans 20 years of work in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Switzerland, Italy, and Mexico and addresses the socioeconomic, cultural, gender, and institutional dimensions of post-disaster reconstruction. Duyne Barenstein's expertise embraces restoration, rural housing, infrastructure development, and water-resource management. Before joining the World Habitat Research Centre in 2007 she was a senior lecturer at the Department of Social Anthropology of the University of Zurich. She is a consultant to such agencies as UNICEF, the World Bank, and Swiss Solidarity.
ALFREDO BRILLEMBOURG received his masterfs degree in architectural design from Columbia University in New York. In 1993 in Caracas, Venezuela, he founded Urban Think Tank, a multidisciplinary design practice dedicated to high-level research through which architects, civil engineers, professors, activists, environmentalists, and local residents work together to improve living conditions in contemporary Caracas. Brillembourg is an active member of the Venezuelan Architects and Engineers Association and a guest professor at universities around the world. In 2000 he became a regular member of studio juries at the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation, Columbia University, where he works with students to develop new approaches to informal settlements and, with Hubert Klumpner, team-teaches and directs SlumLab (Sustainable Living Urban Model Laboratory).
GUILLAUME CHANTRY has degrees in engineering from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris and in social and economic development from the Institut dfÉtude du Développement Economique et Social, Université Paris 1. He has devoted his career to addressing the problems of shelter and settlements in less developed communities in Africa, the Caribbean, Asia, and the Pacific. Chantry was deputy director of the Housing and Construction team within the Group for Research and Technological Exchange in Paris from 1980 to 1993, and has been program coordinator in Southeast Asia for Development Workshop France since 1999. His experience developing community-based programs that reduce the impact of natural disasters and improve local conditions ranges from producing theater plays to managing innovative housing-credit projects.
PATRICK COULOMBEL began as an architect and started Architectes de lfUrgence (Emergency Architects) in 2001 to work on behalf of poor people who have lost homes, possessions, families, and livelihoods. Coulombel and his teams work in 26 countries to carry out cartographic damage evaluations; provide emergency assistance and temporary shelters; build affordable permanent homes; repair infrastructure; improve logistics; conduct training programs; facilitate ethical partnerships among communities, governments, and humanitarian organizations; and conserve architectural, cultural, and historic heritage. He is now developing strategies to address the need for a sustainable food supply in the context of long-term recovery.
ROBIN CROSS joined Article 25 Development and Disaster Relief, London, in 2008 as director of projects. A graduate of the Bartlett School, University College London, he has experience ranging from leading construction teams in community-based building projects to administering contracts in the UKfs commercial construction industry. From 2006 to 2010 Cross was an elected councillor in the London Borough of Lewisham, where he represented one of the most diverse communities in the city and took an active role in sustainable urban regeneration. At Article 25 Cross is acting CEO, leading designers and built-environment professionals who commit their skills and energy to the teamfs expanding program of development and disaster relief.
TEDDY CRUZ obtained a masterfs degree in design studies from Harvard University in 1997 and established his research-based architecture practice in San Diego, California, in 2000. He has been recognized internationally for his research on the Tijuana–San Diego border. In 1991 he received a Rome Prize in Architecture and in 2005 was the first recipient of the James Stirling Memorial Lecture on the City Prize. His work has been profiled in the New York Times, Domus, Harvard Design Magazine, and other publications, and included in the 2008 Venice Biennale and Small Scale, Big Change at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 2010. He is a professor of public culture and urbanism in the Visual Arts Department at the University of California, San Diego, where he co-founded CUE/ Center for Urban Ecologies.
JAMES DART is principal of the New York–based design firm DARCH and university lecturer and director of the Sienna Urban Design Studio at New Jersey Institute of Technologyfs College of Architecture and Design. DARCH has won numerous local and national awards, including a 2002 Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects. Current work includes multiyear projects at Bartramfs Garden, in Philadelphia, the nationfs oldest botanical garden; the Wyckoff Farmhouse Museum, Brooklyn, New York; master planning for Temple Universityfs Ambler, Pennsylvania, campus; new facilities for the Paul Taylor Dance Company in New York; and private residences throughout the US.
RAJENDRA AND RUPAL DESAI work as a team at the National Centre for Peoplesf Action in Disaster in Ahmadabad, India. Rajendra has 20 years of experience in technology development, structural design, disaster mitigation, and rehabilitation. He has pioneered repair and seismic retrofitting of masonry structures throughout India, where he and Rupal have worked to improve vernacular building systems. Rupal focuses on passive and cost-effective architecture, community-based disaster rehabilitation, and developing communication media for disaster mitigation.
SANDRA DfURZO has degrees in architecture from the University of Rome and the University of Barcelona. Her work aims to improve the living conditions of the most vulnerable people and focuses on the social commitments of architects and emergency planning. She has collaborated with the international architecture firm Mecanoo, in the Netherlands, to develop sustainable architecture and planning projects and ecologically sound building technologies. In 2001 she coordinated reconstruction projects for the NGO Architecture and Development in El Salvador, East Timor, the Philippines, Afghanistan, and Palestine. She has lectured widely in the United States and Europe and her design work in Senegal and Mali was nominated for the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. D'Urzo is currently the senior officer for Post-Disaster Reconstruction at the International Federation of the Red Cross in Geneva.
ANDREA FITRIANTO is an Indonesian architect working for Uplink (Urban Poor Linkage) on participatory planning in informal settlements in Jakarta and Surabaya. His work with Uplink began in Aceh and he now works in urban contexts, advocating for land and housing rights, eviction protection, and city budgets to support the needs of the poor. His current project is a community-based slum-upgrading program in Thailand.
FRANCESCA GALEAZZI is a sustainability specialist with masterfs degrees in engineering and fine arts. She is based in Shanghai as a design-team member at Arup Associates, an international, multidisciplinary organization devoted to pioneering innovative, sustainable design. She was instrumental in the development of the Druk White Lotus School in Ladakh, India. There she played an active role in defining corporate responsibility as a way of working, in which sustainability is not only an environmental issue but includes fundamental challenges of social and cultural sustainability, the well-being of communities and individuals, and their financial viability. Galeazzi's recent work as a visual artist focuses on the need for cultural leadership in climate change.
DEBORAH GANS holds an M.Arch from Princeton University in New Jersey. She is the principal of the New York–based architecture firm Gans Studio, a professor in the Architecture School at Pratt Institute, New York, and has been a visiting critic at Yale University. Her practice and publications often focus on green design, and she is also a scholar of the work of Le Corbusier. Gans Studio works on alternative forms of housing, including models for New Orleans and a disaster-relief project for Kosovo that won an international competition and a grant for subsequent development. The studiofs prototype for a Roll Out House was shown in the US Pavilion of the 2008 Venice Biennale.
MEHRAN GHARAATI has a PhD from the School of Architecture, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, where he recently completed his thesis on the reconstruction of Bam, Iran. Before going to Canada, he received his M.Arch from the Art University of Isfahan, Iran, where he also practiced and taught architecture for four years. Gharaati is an expert on vernacular adobe/mud construction.
VICTORIA L. HARRIS founded Article 25, devoted to development and post-disaster redevelopment and reconstruction, in 2005. In just five years the group has been recognized for its award-winning seismic-housing program in northern Pakistan; nominated for its school for street children in Goa, India; and acknowledged for a 300-foot (91-m) bridge on the Thai-Burmese border that replaced one washed away by a flood. Harris is a visiting professor in the Department of Architecture at Queens University, Belfast, supervising PhD theses in disaster relief. Her career includes a PhD in nuclear physics and seven years in the banking industry. She has recently become chief executive of dotNGO, a London-based organization that provides a top-level secure domain for charities, NGOs, and nonprofit organizations.
ROHIT JIGYASU, a conservation architect, is an invited professor of conservation architecture at Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto. He has a PhD in engineering from Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, where he researched the role of traditional knowledge in disaster mitigation, response, and recovery. He is a consultant to the Archaeological Survey of India, the National Institute of Disaster Management, Unesco, the UNfs International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, and the Getty Conservation Institute, conducting research and training on cultural-heritage risk management. He has worked on the World Heritage sites of Khajuraho, Hampi, Konark, Ajanta, and Ellora in India.
HUBERT KLUMPNER graduated from the Academy of Applied Arts in Vienna and completed a masterfs degree in architecture and urban design at Columbia University, New York. In 1998 he joined Urban Think Tank, a multidisciplinary design practice based in Caracas that coordinates work among architects, civil engineers, professors, activists, environmentalists, and local residents to improve living conditions. Klumpner has lectured widely in Europe and the Americas, taught at the Academy of Applied Arts in Vienna and the International Summer Academy in Salzburg, and been a guest professor at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. He directs SlumLab and team-teaches with Alfredo Brillembourg at Columbia University. In 2001 he became a consultant on urban development for the International Program for Social and Cultural Development in Latin America, organized by Unesco.
ARLENE CHRISTY LUSTERIO is an architect and environmental planner with a masterfs degree in architecture and human settlements from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. She has worked with urban poor communities in the Philippines and Cambodia and is a founding member and executive director of TAO-Pilipinas, a group of women professionals based in Manila with expertise in architecture, planning, engineering, environmental science, economics, and social development. TAO provides technical assistance to urban and rural poor communities; works to ensure equitable access to resources; and organizes citizens, NGOs, local government, and universities into networks that improve life and reduce risk within informal settlements. In 2006 TAO received the First International Year of Shelter for the Homeless Encouragement Prize from the Japan Housing Association.
ANDREA NIELD has 30 years of architectural and interior-design experience, including projects in community healthcare and education as well as commercial buildings and private residences. She is past president of Emergency Architects Australia in Sydney (allied to Architectes de lfUrgence in France), which she founded in 2005 to provide assistance in post-disaster reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific. Her projects have a global reach, extending to Australia, Germany, Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, and the Solomon Islands. In 2008 she received the Marion Mahoney Griffin Award of the New South Wales Chapter of the Australian Institute of Architects.
JOHN NORTON started Development Workshop France (DWF), based in Lauzerte, France, when he was still an architecture student. For over thirty-five years his work with DWF has promoted sustainable settlement and shelter development by respecting existing values and using local skills and resources. Current projects focus on reducing the vulnerability to disaster of poor people in Africa and Southeast Asia. DWF is the only nonprofit organization to have won two World Habitat Awards: in 1998 for woodless construction in Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso and in 2008 for prevention of typhoon damage in Vietnam. on projects that support human rights. Each project promotes sustainable technologies, participatory planning, and the use of local building techniques, labor, and materials. Projects include healthcare buildings for Emergency, an Italian NGO working in Sudan, Sierra Leone, the Central African Republic, and Nicaragua, as well as urban space and landscape projects in Italy.
KIMON ONUMA is founder and president of the firm Onuma, Inc., and chief executive of BIMStorm/Building Information Modeling based in Pasadena, California. He heads a team of architects and computer programmers who use advanced processes and custom tools to promote sustainable design in the building industry at unprecedented levels of quality and integration.
SERGIO PALLERONI is a professor of architecture and a fellow of the Institute for Sustainable Solutions at Portland State University, Oregon. A partner in Palleroni Leite Design Partnership, he cofounded BaSiC Initiative in 1995 to support service-learning work with architecture students in underserved communities. The program has designed and built nearly 100 projects, ranging from schools, clinics, houses, and literacy centers to infrastructure, including cisterns, waste treatment facilities, and solar fields. For decades Palleroni has worked alongside international development and relief agencies such as the United Nations and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, India, and Taiwan, on housing and community development. His numerous teaching and design awards include a National Design Award from the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution, in 2005 and, in 2010, a Global Impact Award in Architecture.
RAUL PANTALEO is a project designer and consultant in bioarchitecture and urban requalification for Tam Associati, a collective of professionals in the fields of sustainable architecture, urban planning, landscape design, graphic design, and social communication dedicated to ethical and responsible project planning. He graduated from the University of Venice and holds an international certificate in human ecology from the University of Padua. Tam Associati works with public institutions, NGOs, and private clients.
DANIEL PITTET is a civil engineer and architect who specializes in applied research on sustainable architecture, the sustainability of public building stock management, and sustainable post-disaster reconstruction projects in India. He worked for several years in Nepal and continues to work as a consultant for Kam For Sud, an NGO committed to sustainable building projects. In Switzerland, he consulted for the national program Swiss Energy on sustainable energy management policies for municipalities. He is currently a member of the World Habitat Research Unit at the University of Zurich, where he helps develop sustainable environmental solutions for post-disaster reconstruction.
DAN ROCKHILL: For more than 20 years the Kansas-based architecture firm of Rockhill and Associates has been recognized worldwide for its innovative designs and ingenious use of materials. In addition principal Dan Rockwell has won dozens of awards for his work in historic preservation. Through his nonprofit, Studio 804,
Rockwell works with students at the University of Kansas to design and build dignified, affordable homes with cutting-edge materials and features in Lawrence and Kansas City. This is one of the first design/build studios to have infiltrated architectural education and stands as testimony to the deep potential of architecture to change and improve peoplefs lives. Rockwell has lived in a Sears and Roebuck mail-order farmhouse since 1980.
MAGGIE STEPHENSON studied architecture and planning at University College Dublin and the Development Planning Unit, University College London. For the last 20 years, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, she has worked in architecture and planning education, urban government, housing and development, and post-disaster reconstruction for governments, the United Nations, nonprofits, and in the private sector. Since 2005 she has been based in Pakistan, where she works with UN-Habitat and the National Disaster Management Authority, supporting response and mitigation, based on people-centered approaches, to help the millions of people affected by natural disaster and conflict there.
ANITA VAN BREDA has a masterfs degree in environmental studies from the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Science, New Haven, Connecticut. As director of humanitarian partnerships for the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), based in Washington, DC, she works with local and global humanitarian aid agencies to ensure that the WWFfs conservation work is applied to disaster recovery and reconstruction in areas such as those affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Today, her team works at the policy level with aid agencies and government institutions to advance green practices in disaster recovery from an integrated human and environmental standpoint.
THIRUPPUGAZH VENKATACHALAM is a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service. After joining the civil service in 1991 he served in various district assignments before becoming the joint chief executive officer of the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority; in this capacity he established the authority as the nodal agency for reconstruction following the 2001 Gujarat earthquake. Venkatachalam is currently on leave from his post as he finishes a PhD in the Department of Political and Social Change at Australian National University–Canberra.
Additional research was provided by BRITTANY SMITH at the World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC; JENNY KIVETT at the University of Kansas, Lawrence; GUY FIMMERS at BaSiC Initiative, Toronto; and NAOMI HANDA WILLIAMS at Article 25 Development and Disaster Relief, London. Their outstanding work helped make this book possible.
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